Department of Oncology

Department of Oncology

Cancer has become a scary word today. The only way to deal with any cancer related problem is to educate you about it. Punjab is the cancer capital of the country, a survey conducted by Punjab government showed that Punjab has higher incidence of cancer than the rest of the country. There are at least 90 cancer patients for every 100,000 population in Punjab. Early stage detection of cancer can help the treatment in a lot of ways. With a team of dedicated doctors at Capitol, we take you through each level with utmost care with compassion. We ensure that you get the best cancer treatment in Punjab when you come to Capitol Hospital.

Capitol Hospital provides main types of treatment procedures when it comes to dealing with different types of cancers:

  • Surgical OncologySurgical Oncology is the surgical management of cancer treatment. It is the precise local treatment where a surgeon may remove a portion of the tumor or obtain a specimen for diagnosis. It is the oldest type of cancer therapy which is concerned with removal of cancerous tissue from the body.
  • Radiation Therapy :Radiation therapy also known as Radiotherapy is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells.

 

TrueBeam System


TrueBeam system, an advanced radiotherapy technology in cancer treatment with pinpoint accuracy and precision is used for Cancer treatment. Capitol Hospital is only one in this region to have this technology which can help in your Cancer treatment effectively. Owing to its pinpoint accuracy, the TrueBeam system can be used to treat many different types of tumors, like those in sensitive areas such as the abdomen, liver, lung, breast and head and neck without causing any damage to nearby tissues. Treatments focus powerful radiation on the tumor while minimizing exposure of surrounding healthy tissues.

  • Medical Oncology (Chemotherapy) : Department of medical oncology at Capitol hospital is a comprehensively facilitated center involved in diagnoses and treatment of solid and Hematological malignancies. Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells.
  • Well Equipped day care Center delivers day based infusional chemotherapies to patients under all as pectic condition. Laminar air flow chamber and continuous monitoring. Drugs are dispensed by highly qualified nursing staff under the guidance of consultants.

 

What is Cancer?

In normal terminology, it is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues. Many cancers form solid tumors, which are masses of tissue. Cancers of the blood, such as leukemia, generally do not form solid tumors.

Types of Cancer

There are more than 200 different types of cancer characterized by abnormal cell growth. There are many different causes, ranging from radiation to chemicals to viruses; an individual has varying degrees of control over exposure to cancer-causing agents.

Cancers are divided into groups according to the type of cell they start from. This includes

  • Carcinomas : Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.
  • Lymphomas & Myeloma: Cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system
  • Leukaemias : Cancer that starts in blood forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and go into the blood
  • Brain & Spinal cord cancers: These are known as central nervous system cancers
  • Sarcomas : Cancer that begins in the connective or supportive tissues such as bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, or blood vessels

We will be explaining in detail some common types of cancers people have:

Head & Neck Cancer: These are of various types.

  • Para nasal sinuses
  • nasal pharynx
  • oral cavity & oropharynx
  • laryngopharynx & Hypo pharynx 

    Paranasal sinuses

Sinuses are cavities (spaces) or small tunnels. They are called paranasal because they’re around or near the nose.The nasal cavity opens into four types of sinuses, as displayed in the illustration.

Any of the cells that make up the mucosa can become cancer, and each type behaves or grows differently from the other.

  • Squamous epithelial cells can become squamous cell carcinomas. This forms the most common type of cancer in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. It makes up a little over half of cancers of these areas.
  • Minor salivary gland cells can turn into adenocarcinomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas,and mucoepidermoid cancers. These also are common nasal and paranasal sinus cancers.
  • Undifferentiated carcinoma is yet another type of cancer that can come from mucosa cells. This is a fast-growing cancer in which the cells look so abnormal that it’s hard to identify in what type of cell the cancer first started.
  • Cells that give the skin its tan or brown color are called melanocytes. Melanoma is a type of cancer that starts in these cells. It has a tendency to grow and spread quickly. These cancers usually are found on sun-exposed areas of the skin but can form on the lining of the nasal cavity and sinuses or other areas inside the body.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma is a cancer that starts in the olfactory nerve (sense of smell). This cancer is also called olfactory neuroblastoma. It usually starts in the roof of the nasal cavity and involves a structure called the cribriform plate. These tumors can sometimes be mistaken for other types of tumors, like undifferentiated carcinoma or lymphoma.
  • Lymphomas(cancers starting in immune system cells called lymphocytes) can occur in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. One type of lymphoma seen in this area, T-cell/natural killer cell nasal-type lymphoma, was previously called lethal midline granuloma.
  • Sarcomas are cancers of muscle, bone, cartilage, and fibrous cells that can start anywhere in the body, including the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.

Each of these types of cancer has a distinct behavior and outlook. They cannot all be treated in the same manner. Many of them rarely affect the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, so they’ve been hard to study. Due to this, doctors usually base their treatment decisions on their experience with similar cancers in other parts of the head and neck.

Treatment:

After your cancer is diagnosed and staged, your cancer care team along with doctors at Capitol Hospital will discuss with you about your treatment options. Choosing a treatment plan is an important decision, so it’s important to take time and think about all choices put forth.

Treatment for nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer may include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Palliative treatment

Depending on the stage of the cancer and your basic health and well-being, different treatment options may be used alone or in combination.

Nasopharyngeal cancer

Pharynx is the medical name for the throat. The pharynx is in three parts. The nasopharynx is one of these parts. The nasopharynx connects the back of your nose to the back of your mouth. Cancer that develops in the nasopharynx is called nasopharyngeal cancer.

Symptoms:

Some people with nasopharyngeal cancer have no symptoms at all. But it is important that you tell your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms for more than three weeks:

  • a lump or growth anywhere in the neck area that does not go away after three weeks
  • hearing loss – usually on one side only
  • ringing in your ears (tinnitus)
  • fluid collecting in your ear
  • blocked or stuffy nose – particularly if it’s only blocked on one side
  • blood stained discharge from your nose
  • headache
  • double vision
  • numbness of the lower part of your face
  • difficulty with swallowing
  • changes in your voice, like hoarseness

Treatment:

Here at Capitol Hospital, a team of doctors and other professionals discuss the best treatment which is suited for you. We call it a multidisciplinary team (MDT).

The treatment you have depends on certain factors as:

  • where your cancer is
  • how far it has grown or spread (the stage)
  • the type of cancer
  • how abnormal the cells look under a microscope (the grade)
  • your general health and level of fitness

The doctor will discuss your treatment, its benefits and the possible side effects with you.

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy is the main treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. You might have it on its own or with chemotherapy (chemoradiotherapy).

Chemotherapy

You might have chemotherapy if nasopharyngeal cancer has spread to:

  • the lymph nodes in your neck
  • other parts of your body, such as the lungs or bones

Chemoradiotherapy

Having chemotherapy and radiotherapy at the same time is called chemoradiotherapy. The chemotherapy makes the cancer cells more sensitive to radiotherapy.

Surgery

Surgery is not a common treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. This is because the area is very difficult to get to and is surrounded by important nerves and blood vessels.

Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer:

Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers start in the mouth or throat.  Oral cavity cancer, or just oral cancer, as it is called is atype of cancer that starts in the mouth (also called the oralcavity). Oropharyngeal cancer starts in the oropharynx, which is the part of the throat just behind the mouth.

What is Oral Cavity?

The oral cavity includes the lips, the inside lining of the lips and cheeks (buccal mucosa), the teeth, the gums, the front two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth below the tongue, and the bony roof of the mouth (hard palate).

What is Oropharynx?

The oropharynx is the part of the throat just behind the mouth. It begins where the oral cavity stops. It includes the base of the tongue (the back third of the tongue), the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth), the tonsils, and the side and back wall of the throat.

Risk factors:

There are different kinds of risk factors. Some, such as your age or race, can’t be changed. Others may be related to personal choices such as smoking, drinking, or diet. Some factors influence risk more than others. Herein, we discuss the popular ones:

  • Tobacco and alcohol:

Tobacco and alcohol consumption are among the strongest risk factors for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers.

  • Betel quid and gutka:

Many people chew betel quid, which is made up of areca nut and lime wrapped in a betel leaf. Then, there is an entire population which also chews gutka, a mixture of betel quid and tobacco. People who chew betel quid or gutka have an increased risk of cancer of the mouth.

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV):

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of more than 150 types of viruses. They are called papillomavirusesbecause some of them cause a type of growth called a papilloma.

  • Gender:

Oral and oropharyngeal cancers are more common in men than in women. This could be because men have been more likely to use tobacco and alcohol in the past.

  • Age:

Cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx usually take many years to develop, so they are not common in young people. Most patients with these cancers are older than 55 when the cancers are first found.

Treatment:

Post cancer detection, your doctor will discuss treatment choices with you. Based on the stage and location of the tumor, the patient always has different types of doctors on the treatment team.

The main treatment options for people with oral and oropharyngeal cancers are:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Palliative treatment

These may be used either alone or in combination, depending on the stage and location of the tumor. Generally, surgery is the first treatment for cancers of the oral cavity, and may be followed by radiation or combined chemotherapy and radiation. Oropharyngeal cancers are usually treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation.

Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal cancer:

Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers start in the lower part of the throat. Cancers that start in the larynx are termed aslaryngeal cancers. Cancers that start in the hypopharynx are called hypopharyngeal cancers.

Majorly all the cancers in the larynx or hypopharynx develop from thin, flat cells called squamous cells, which are in the epithelium, the innermost layer lining these 2 structures. Cancer that starts in this layer of cells is called squamous cell carcinoma or squamous cell cancer.

What is the larynx?

The larynx is the voice box. It’s one of the organs that help us speak. It contains vocal cords. It is located in the neck, above the opening of the trachea (windpipe). There, it helps keep food and fluids from entering the trachea.Cancer that starts in the larynx (laryngeal cancer) is treated based on which section it begins in.

What is the hypopharynx?

The hypopharynx is the part of the throat (pharynx) that lies beside and behind your larynx. The hypopharynx is the entrance into the esophagus (the tube that connects the throat to the stomach).

Risk Factors:

A risk factor can be anything that affects your chance of getting a disease like cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors associated with them.

Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers are often grouped with other cancers of the mouth and throat (commonly called head and neck cancers). These cancers often have many of the same risk factors, which are listed below.

  • Tobacco and Alcohol consumption:

Tobacco use is the most important risk factor for head and neck cancers (including cancers of the larynx and hypopharynx). The risk for these cancers is much higher in smokers than in non-smokers.

Moderate or heavy alcohol use (more than 1 drink a day) also increases the risk of these cancers, although not as much as smoking.People who use both tobacco and alcohol come into the highest risk of all categories. Combining these two habits doesn’t just add both risks together, it actually multiplies them.

  • Poor nutrition:

Poor nutrition may increase the risk of getting head and neck cancer. The exact reason for this isn’t clear. Heavy drinkers often have vitamin deficiencies, which may help explain the role of alcohol in increasing risk of these cancers.

  • Human papillomavirus infection:

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of over 150 related viruses. They are called papilloma viruses because some of them cause a type of growth called a papilloma, more commonly known as a wart.Infection with certain types of HPV can also cause some forms of cancer, including cancers of the penis, cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, and throat.

  • Genetic syndromes:

People with syndromes caused by inherited gene defects (mutations) have a very high risk of throat cancer, including cancer of the hypopharynx.

  • Workplace exposures:

Long and intense exposures to wood dust, paint fumes and certain chemicals used in the metal working, petroleum, plastics and textile industries can increase the risk of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers.

Treatment:

Treatment for laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer may include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

Depending on the stage of the cancer and your overall health, different treatment options may be used alone or in combination, as it will be discussed with you by your oncologist.

Cancer has always been considered a disease which strikes you at later stages of your life. This holds true to a certain extent, but if we look at breast cancer, the age at which women develop breast cancer has undergone a sea change in the last two decades.

An increasing number of breast cancers are detected in the 25-40 years age group. The age where one settles down, plans to have a family and is busy with raising children. India is now witnessing more and more numbers of patients being diagnosed with breast cancer to be in the younger age groups.

What every woman should know

Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer among American women. One in eight women will develop invasive breast cancer during her lifetime. But advances in breast cancer treatment mean many women can expect to beat the disease and maintain their physical appearance.

Strand Center studied genes that may increase a women’s risk of suffering from breast cancer. Our scientists have identified 50 mutations (variants of a gene) in genes that are present in the Indian population, which can cause breast cancer. Some of these gene mutations have been identified earlier. Our analysis showed that there are 19 new mutations that have not been identified by other researchers. So, all in all, these gene variations have increased the chances of breast cancer amongst Indian women.

Symptoms

  • A lump in the breast
  • Pain in armpits or breast that does not seem to be related to the woman’s menstrual period
  • Pitting or redness of the skin of the breast
  • A rash around (or on) one of the nipples
  • A swelling (lump) in one of the armpits
  • An area of thickened tissue in a breast
  • One of the nipples has a discharge; sometimes it may contain blood
  • The nipple changes in appearance; it may become sunken or inverted
  • The size or the shape of the breast changes
  • The nipple-skin or breast-skin may have started to peel, scale or flake news

 A successful treatment of cancer is possible, if detected at an early stage.

This is another type of cancer which strikes men, as only men have a prostate gland. The prostate is usually the size and shape of a walnut and grows bigger as you get older. Its main function is to help make semen – the fluid that carries sperm. Due to its location, prostate diseases often affect urination, ejaculation and sometimes defecation. Prostate cancer usually grows very slowly. Most men with prostate cancer are usually older than 65 years and do not die from the disease.

Causes/ Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer

The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown; however there are few factors that can increase the risk.

  • Age : The risk of cancer increases as you grow old as it is rare in men younger than 50 years of age. The chance of developing prostate cancer increases as men get older.
  • Family history :If a member in your family is diagnosed with prostate cancer you are a higher-than-average risk of getting prostate cancer.
  • Ethnicity : Prostate cancer is more common in black African men than in white or Asian men. African-American men with prostate cancer are more likely to die from it than white men with prostate cancer.
  • Height and weight : Taller men have higher risk than shorter men. Also being overweight can increase the risk of getting the disease.
  • Environmental factors :Like cigarette smoking and diet that are high in saturated fat, seem to put men to high risk of prostate cancer.
  • Inflammation and Infections (prostatitis) can also increase the chance of one getting prostate cancer.
  • Dairy and calciumA diet high in dairy foods and calcium may cause a small increase in the risk of prostate cancer.

 Signs and Symptoms

Prostate cancer usually has no signs or symptoms in early stages. However, advanced stage prostate cancer may cause signs and symptoms which are listed below, when you have been reporting any one of these, it is high time you reach the best cancer hospital in the region:

  • Trouble urinating (pain when passing urine)
  • Frequent urination, especially at night
  • Urgency to pass urine
  • Decreased force in the stream of urine
  • A sense of not completely emptying the bladder
  • Blood in the urine and semen
  • Bone pains
  • Discomfort in the pelvic area
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control due to cancer growth pressing the spinal cord.
  • Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet
  • All of these symptoms can be caused by a variety of factors besides prostate cancer, so experiencing any doesn’t necessarily mean you have the disease. However, if the symptoms occur frequently then a cancer specialist should be consulted.

 Treatment & Care

In cancer care, different types of doctors from different streams of specialization usually work together to devise an overall treatment plan that may combine different type of treatments. This approach is called multidisciplinary team and also depends on the stage being treated.

  • Watchful waiting or active surveillance
  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Cryotherapy (cryosurgery)
  • Hormone therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Vaccine treatment
  • Bone-directed treatment

Our competent team of doctors can offer you with the best cancer treatment in the region at affordable costs.

A successful treatment of cancer is possible, if detected at an early stage.

Cancer is a disease caused by the uncontrolled growth and proliferation of cells. Cancer that affects the lining of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus, is known as cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is a slowly progressing disease, which affects the lining of the mouth of the uterus, known as cervix.

A close look

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in India in women accounting for 22.86% of all cancer cases in women and 12% of all cancer cases in both men and women.

Rural women are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer as compared to their urban counterparts. Cervical cancer is the third largest cause of cancer mortality in India accounting for nearly 10% of all cancer related deaths in the country. India also has the highest age standardized incidence of cervical cancer in South Asia compared to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Iran.

Causes of cervical cancer

Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus or HPV. You can get HPV by having sexual contact with someone who already has it. Though, there are many types of the HPV virus but not all types cause cervical cancer. Some of them cause genital warts, but other types may not cause any symptoms.

Most adults have been infected with HPV at some time. An infection may go away on its own. But sometimes it can cause genital warts or lead to cervical cancer. This is the reason for women to have regular Pap tests. A Pap test can find changes in cervical cells before they turn into cancer. If you treat these cell changes, you may prevent cervical cancer.

Signs & Symptoms

Abnormal cervical cell changes rarely cause symptoms. But you may have symptoms if those cell changes grow into cervical cancer. Symptoms of cervical cancer may include:

  • Bleeding from the vagina that is not normal, such as bleeding between menstrual periods, after sex or after menopause.
  • Pain in the lower belly or pelvis
  • Pain during sex
  • Vaginal discharge that isn’t normal

 Treatment & Care:

The treatment for most stages of cervical cancer includes

  • Surgery, such as a hysterectomy and removal of pelvic lymph nodes with or without removal of both ovaries and fallopian tubes
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy

Depending on how much the cancer has grown, the stage it has reached you may have one or more treatments. There can be a combination of treatments which can be suggested by the doctors. If you have a hysterectomy you won’t be able to have children, but a hysterectomy isn’t always required, especially when cancer is found at an early stage.

Finding out that you have cancer can change your life. Talking with family, friends or a counselor can really help. Ask your doctor or call Capitol hospital helpline (84275- 84275).

A successful treatment of cancer is possible, if detected at an early stage.

Leukemia is a cancer of the early blood-forming cells. In most of the cases, leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells, but some leukemia can start in other blood cell types too. It is often described as being either acute (fast growing) or chronic (slow growing). There are different treatment options and outlooks for different types of leukemia, according to the stage.

Most of these cancers start in your bone marrow where blood is produced. Stem cells in your bone marrow mature and develop into three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells or platelets. In most blood cancers, the normal blood cell development process is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of an abnormal type of blood cell. These abnormal blood cells or cancerous cells, prevent your blood from performing many of its basic functions, like fighting off infections or preventing serious bleeding.

There are many different types of blood cancers, the common ones have been explained below but there are some rarer types as the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN).

  1. Leukemia:  A type of cancer found in your blood and bone marrow which is caused by the rapid production of abnormal white blood cells. The high number of abnormal white blood cells are not able to fight infection and they impair the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells and platelets.
  2. Lymphoma: This is a type of blood cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which removes excess fluids from your body and produces immune cells. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell whose primary function is to fight infection. Abnormal lymphocytes become lymphoma cells, which multiply and collect in your lymph nodes and other tissues. Over a period of time, these cancerous cells impair your immune system.
  3. Myeloma: This is a cancer of the plasma cells. Plasma cells are white blood cells that produce disease- and infection-fighting antibodies in your body. Myeloma cells are related to the prevention of the normal production of antibodies, leaving your body’s immune system weakened and easily prone to infection.

 Causes/ Risk factors

A number of factors increase the risk of developing blood cancer. Not all people with risk factors will get blood cancer. Risk factors for blood cancer include:

  • Advanced age
  • Certain types of infections
  • Compromised immune system due to such conditions as HIV/AIDS, taking corticosteroids or organ transplant
  • Exposure to certain chemicals
  • Exposure to radiation or certain types of chemotherapy
  • Family history of blood cancer
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Solid organ transplant recipient
  • Personal history of certain blood disorders
  • Personal history of certain genetic disorders (Down syndrome)
  • Smoking

 Signs & Symptoms

  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Feeling weak or breathless
  • Easily bruise or bleed
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Swollen stomach or abdominal discomfort
  • Frequent and repeated infections
  • Fever/night sweats
  • Pain in bones/joints
  • Itchy skin
  • Bone pain (ribs/back)

Treatment & Care

There are several therapies available to treat blood cancers like

  • Biological therapy to attack cancer cells
  • Chemotherapy to attack cancer cells
  • Radiation therapy to attack cancer cells
  • Stem cell transplant to provide healthy stem cells which in turn can make healthy blood cells
  • Targeted therapy to attack specific cancer cells or signaling proteins
  • Watchful waiting to identify when to begin treatment
  • Participation in clinical trial testing promising new treatments for blood cancers

 Other treatments for blood cancer

Other than following the traditional methods for treatment, there are other therapies which can be added along with like

  • Anti-nausea medications, if required
  • Antibiotics and other medications to reduce the likelihood of getting infections
  • Blood transfusions to temporarily replace blood components (like RBC’s or platelets)
  • Dental care to manage oral symptoms of leukemia or chemotherapy
  • Dietary consultation to help patients maintain their strength and nutritional status
  • Pain medications, if required to increase comfort
  • Vaccinations to prevent diseases like flu and pneumonia

At Capitol, we again stress on the fact that Cancer can be treated with a good success rate, if detected on time. So, keep your health check-ups regular and do not be afraid of knowing what’s going on in your body. A healthy you is the best gift you can give your family and friends.

A successful treatment of cancer is possible, if detected at an early stage.

Ovarian cancer happens when abnormal cells grow in one or both of your ovaries, two small glands located on either side of the uterus. This cancer begins in the ovaries, which are two glands located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and release eggs during a woman’s reproductive years.

Usually, ovarian cancer symptoms are not quite visible in the early stages of the disease. As, there is no routine screening test for ovarian cancer, women with a family history of the disease or other risk factors should be cautious.

There are three main types of ovarian tumors

  • Epithelial tumors: Tumors which starts from the cells that cover the outer surface of the ovary
  • Germ cell tumors: These start from the cells that make eggs
  • Stromal tumors: They start from the cells that hold the ovaries together

 Risk Factors of Ovarian cancer

  • Family history of Ovarian Cancer
  • Personal history of cancer, specifically in the breast,uterus, colon or rectum have greater susceptibility for developing ovarian cancer
  • Aging:The risk of developing ovarian cancer gets higher with age. Ovarian cancer is rare in women younger than 40 years as most of it develops after menopause. Half of all ovarian cancers are found in women above the age of 55 years

Reproductive history

Women who have been pregnant and carried it to term before age 26 have a lower risk of ovarian cancer than women who have not. The risk further goes down with each full-term pregnancy. Women who have their first full-term pregnancy after age 35 or who never carried a pregnancy to term have a higher risk of ovarian cancer.

Breastfeeding may lower the risk even further

  • Birth control:  Women who have used oral contraceptives (also known as birth control pills) have a lower risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Fertility drugs: Some older studies showed a link between taking fertility drugs and an increased risk of ovarian cancer. But more recent research doesn’t support this.
  • Being Obese or tall: Ovarian cancer risk is higher in women who have a high BMI (Body Mass Index) and have never used HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy). Women who have a high BMI and have used HRT have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer.

Research has also found that taller women have a higher risk of ovarian cancer as compared to shorter women.

  • Having endometriosis: Research has shown that women with endometriosis have an increase in their ovarian cancer risk compared to women who do not.

Endometriosis happens when tissue normally found inside the uterus grows in other parts of the body. Endometriosis is a condition where endometrial tissue is found outside the uterus or grows in other parts of the body. It is usually found ‘trapped’ in the pelvic area and abdomen and rarely in other areas in the body.

  • Use of talcum powder: Using talcum powder between your legs or genital area is thought to increase the risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Smoking: Smoking can increase the risk of certain types of ovarian cancer such as mucinous ovarian cancer. The longer you have smoked, the greater the risk.

A successful treatment of cancer is possible, if detected at an early stage.